OpenCV  4.1.2-pre
Open Source Computer Vision
AKAZE and ORB planar tracking

Introduction

In this tutorial we will compare AKAZE and ORB local features using them to find matches between video frames and track object movements.

The algorithm is as follows:

frame.png

Data

To do the tracking we need a video and object position on the first frame.

You can download our example video and data from here.

To run the code you have to specify input (camera id or video_file). Then, select a bounding box with the mouse, and press any key to start tracking

./planar_tracking blais.mp4

Source Code

#include <opencv2/highgui.hpp> //for imshow
#include <vector>
#include <iostream>
#include <iomanip>
#include "stats.h" // Stats structure definition
#include "utils.h" // Drawing and printing functions
using namespace std;
using namespace cv;
const double akaze_thresh = 3e-4; // AKAZE detection threshold set to locate about 1000 keypoints
const double ransac_thresh = 2.5f; // RANSAC inlier threshold
const double nn_match_ratio = 0.8f; // Nearest-neighbour matching ratio
const int bb_min_inliers = 100; // Minimal number of inliers to draw bounding box
const int stats_update_period = 10; // On-screen statistics are updated every 10 frames
namespace example {
class Tracker
{
public:
detector(_detector),
matcher(_matcher)
{}
void setFirstFrame(const Mat frame, vector<Point2f> bb, string title, Stats& stats);
Mat process(const Mat frame, Stats& stats);
Ptr<Feature2D> getDetector() {
return detector;
}
protected:
Ptr<Feature2D> detector;
Mat first_frame, first_desc;
vector<KeyPoint> first_kp;
vector<Point2f> object_bb;
};
void Tracker::setFirstFrame(const Mat frame, vector<Point2f> bb, string title, Stats& stats)
{
cv::Point *ptMask = new cv::Point[bb.size()];
const Point* ptContain = { &ptMask[0] };
int iSize = static_cast<int>(bb.size());
for (size_t i=0; i<bb.size(); i++) {
ptMask[i].x = static_cast<int>(bb[i].x);
ptMask[i].y = static_cast<int>(bb[i].y);
}
first_frame = frame.clone();
cv::Mat matMask = cv::Mat::zeros(frame.size(), CV_8UC1);
cv::fillPoly(matMask, &ptContain, &iSize, 1, cv::Scalar::all(255));
detector->detectAndCompute(first_frame, matMask, first_kp, first_desc);
stats.keypoints = (int)first_kp.size();
drawBoundingBox(first_frame, bb);
putText(first_frame, title, Point(0, 60), FONT_HERSHEY_PLAIN, 5, Scalar::all(0), 4);
object_bb = bb;
delete[] ptMask;
}
Mat Tracker::process(const Mat frame, Stats& stats)
{
vector<KeyPoint> kp;
Mat desc;
tm.start();
detector->detectAndCompute(frame, noArray(), kp, desc);
stats.keypoints = (int)kp.size();
vector< vector<DMatch> > matches;
vector<KeyPoint> matched1, matched2;
matcher->knnMatch(first_desc, desc, matches, 2);
for(unsigned i = 0; i < matches.size(); i++) {
if(matches[i][0].distance < nn_match_ratio * matches[i][1].distance) {
matched1.push_back(first_kp[matches[i][0].queryIdx]);
matched2.push_back( kp[matches[i][0].trainIdx]);
}
}
stats.matches = (int)matched1.size();
Mat inlier_mask, homography;
vector<KeyPoint> inliers1, inliers2;
vector<DMatch> inlier_matches;
if(matched1.size() >= 4) {
homography = findHomography(Points(matched1), Points(matched2),
RANSAC, ransac_thresh, inlier_mask);
}
tm.stop();
stats.fps = 1. / tm.getTimeSec();
if(matched1.size() < 4 || homography.empty()) {
Mat res;
hconcat(first_frame, frame, res);
stats.inliers = 0;
stats.ratio = 0;
return res;
}
for(unsigned i = 0; i < matched1.size(); i++) {
if(inlier_mask.at<uchar>(i)) {
int new_i = static_cast<int>(inliers1.size());
inliers1.push_back(matched1[i]);
inliers2.push_back(matched2[i]);
inlier_matches.push_back(DMatch(new_i, new_i, 0));
}
}
stats.inliers = (int)inliers1.size();
stats.ratio = stats.inliers * 1.0 / stats.matches;
vector<Point2f> new_bb;
perspectiveTransform(object_bb, new_bb, homography);
Mat frame_with_bb = frame.clone();
if(stats.inliers >= bb_min_inliers) {
drawBoundingBox(frame_with_bb, new_bb);
}
Mat res;
drawMatches(first_frame, inliers1, frame_with_bb, inliers2,
inlier_matches, res,
Scalar(255, 0, 0), Scalar(255, 0, 0));
return res;
}
}
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
CommandLineParser parser(argc, argv, "{@input_path |0|input path can be a camera id, like 0,1,2 or a video filename}");
parser.printMessage();
string input_path = parser.get<string>(0);
string video_name = input_path;
VideoCapture video_in;
if ( ( isdigit(input_path[0]) && input_path.size() == 1 ) )
{
int camera_no = input_path[0] - '0';
video_in.open( camera_no );
}
else {
video_in.open(video_name);
}
if(!video_in.isOpened()) {
cerr << "Couldn't open " << video_name << endl;
return 1;
}
Stats stats, akaze_stats, orb_stats;
Ptr<AKAZE> akaze = AKAZE::create();
akaze->setThreshold(akaze_thresh);
Ptr<ORB> orb = ORB::create();
Ptr<DescriptorMatcher> matcher = DescriptorMatcher::create("BruteForce-Hamming");
example::Tracker akaze_tracker(akaze, matcher);
example::Tracker orb_tracker(orb, matcher);
Mat frame;
namedWindow(video_name, WINDOW_NORMAL);
cout << "\nPress any key to stop the video and select a bounding box" << endl;
while ( waitKey(1) < 1 )
{
video_in >> frame;
cv::resizeWindow(video_name, frame.size());
imshow(video_name, frame);
}
vector<Point2f> bb;
cv::Rect uBox = cv::selectROI(video_name, frame);
bb.push_back(cv::Point2f(static_cast<float>(uBox.x), static_cast<float>(uBox.y)));
bb.push_back(cv::Point2f(static_cast<float>(uBox.x+uBox.width), static_cast<float>(uBox.y)));
bb.push_back(cv::Point2f(static_cast<float>(uBox.x+uBox.width), static_cast<float>(uBox.y+uBox.height)));
bb.push_back(cv::Point2f(static_cast<float>(uBox.x), static_cast<float>(uBox.y+uBox.height)));
akaze_tracker.setFirstFrame(frame, bb, "AKAZE", stats);
orb_tracker.setFirstFrame(frame, bb, "ORB", stats);
Stats akaze_draw_stats, orb_draw_stats;
Mat akaze_res, orb_res, res_frame;
int i = 0;
for(;;) {
i++;
bool update_stats = (i % stats_update_period == 0);
video_in >> frame;
// stop the program if no more images
if(frame.empty()) break;
akaze_res = akaze_tracker.process(frame, stats);
akaze_stats += stats;
if(update_stats) {
akaze_draw_stats = stats;
}
orb->setMaxFeatures(stats.keypoints);
orb_res = orb_tracker.process(frame, stats);
orb_stats += stats;
if(update_stats) {
orb_draw_stats = stats;
}
drawStatistics(akaze_res, akaze_draw_stats);
drawStatistics(orb_res, orb_draw_stats);
vconcat(akaze_res, orb_res, res_frame);
cv::imshow(video_name, res_frame);
if(waitKey(1)==27) break; //quit on ESC button
}
akaze_stats /= i - 1;
orb_stats /= i - 1;
printStatistics("AKAZE", akaze_stats);
printStatistics("ORB", orb_stats);
return 0;
}

Explanation

Tracker class

This class implements algorithm described abobve using given feature detector and descriptor matcher.

Results

You can watch the resulting video on youtube.

AKAZE statistics:

Matches 626
Inliers 410
Inlier ratio 0.58
Keypoints 1117

ORB statistics:

Matches 504
Inliers 319
Inlier ratio 0.56
Keypoints 1112