OpenCV
4.7.0dev
Open Source Computer Vision

A circle is represented mathematically as \((xx_{center})^2 + (y  y_{center})^2 = r^2\) where \((x_{center},y_{center})\) is the center of the circle, and \(r\) is the radius of the circle. From equation, we can see we have 3 parameters, so we need a 3D accumulator for hough transform, which would be highly ineffective. So OpenCV uses more trickier method, Hough Gradient Method which uses the gradient information of edges.
We use the function: cv.HoughCircles (image, circles, method, dp, minDist, param1 = 100, param2 = 100, minRadius = 0, maxRadius = 0)
image  8bit, singlechannel, grayscale input image. 
circles  output vector of found circles(cv.CV_32FC3 type). Each vector is encoded as a 3element floatingpoint vector (x,y,radius) . 
method  detection method(see cv.HoughModes). Currently, the only implemented method is HOUGH_GRADIENT 
dp  inverse ratio of the accumulator resolution to the image resolution. For example, if dp = 1 , the accumulator has the same resolution as the input image. If dp = 2 , the accumulator has half as big width and height. 
minDist  minimum distance between the centers of the detected circles. If the parameter is too small, multiple neighbor circles may be falsely detected in addition to a true one. If it is too large, some circles may be missed. 
param1  first methodspecific parameter. In case of HOUGH_GRADIENT , it is the higher threshold of the two passed to the Canny edge detector (the lower one is twice smaller). 
param2  second methodspecific parameter. In case of HOUGH_GRADIENT , it is the accumulator threshold for the circle centers at the detection stage. The smaller it is, the more false circles may be detected. Circles, corresponding to the larger accumulator values, will be returned first. 
minRadius  minimum circle radius. 
maxRadius  maximum circle radius. 