OpenCV  3.3.1 Open Source Computer Vision
kalman.cpp

An example using the standard Kalman filter

#include <stdio.h>
using namespace cv;
static inline Point calcPoint(Point2f center, double R, double angle)
{
return center + Point2f((float)cos(angle), (float)-sin(angle))*(float)R;
}
static void help()
{
printf( "\nExample of c calls to OpenCV's Kalman filter.\n"
" Tracking of rotating point.\n"
" Rotation speed is constant.\n"
" Both state and measurements vectors are 1D (a point angle),\n"
" Measurement is the real point angle + gaussian noise.\n"
" The real and the estimated points are connected with yellow line segment,\n"
" the real and the measured points are connected with red line segment.\n"
" (if Kalman filter works correctly,\n"
" the yellow segment should be shorter than the red one).\n"
"\n"
" Pressing any key (except ESC) will reset the tracking with a different speed.\n"
" Pressing ESC will stop the program.\n"
);
}
int main(int, char**)
{
help();
Mat img(500, 500, CV_8UC3);
KalmanFilter KF(2, 1, 0);
Mat state(2, 1, CV_32F); /* (phi, delta_phi) */
Mat processNoise(2, 1, CV_32F);
Mat measurement = Mat::zeros(1, 1, CV_32F);
char code = (char)-1;
for(;;)
{
randn( state, Scalar::all(0), Scalar::all(0.1) );
KF.transitionMatrix = (Mat_<float>(2, 2) << 1, 1, 0, 1);
for(;;)
{
Point2f center(img.cols*0.5f, img.rows*0.5f);
float R = img.cols/3.f;
double stateAngle = state.at<float>(0);
Point statePt = calcPoint(center, R, stateAngle);
Mat prediction = KF.predict();
double predictAngle = prediction.at<float>(0);
Point predictPt = calcPoint(center, R, predictAngle);
randn( measurement, Scalar::all(0), Scalar::all(KF.measurementNoiseCov.at<float>(0)));
// generate measurement
measurement += KF.measurementMatrix*state;
double measAngle = measurement.at<float>(0);
Point measPt = calcPoint(center, R, measAngle);
// plot points
#define drawCross( center, color, d ) \
line( img, Point( center.x - d, center.y - d ), \
Point( center.x + d, center.y + d ), color, 1, LINE_AA, 0); \
line( img, Point( center.x + d, center.y - d ), \
Point( center.x - d, center.y + d ), color, 1, LINE_AA, 0 )
img = Scalar::all(0);
drawCross( statePt, Scalar(255,255,255), 3 );
drawCross( measPt, Scalar(0,0,255), 3 );
drawCross( predictPt, Scalar(0,255,0), 3 );
line( img, statePt, measPt, Scalar(0,0,255), 3, LINE_AA, 0 );
line( img, statePt, predictPt, Scalar(0,255,255), 3, LINE_AA, 0 );
if(theRNG().uniform(0,4) != 0)
KF.correct(measurement);
randn( processNoise, Scalar(0), Scalar::all(sqrt(KF.processNoiseCov.at<float>(0, 0))));
state = KF.transitionMatrix*state + processNoise;
imshow( "Kalman", img );
code = (char)waitKey(100);
if( code > 0 )
break;
}
if( code == 27 || code == 'q' || code == 'Q' )
break;
}
return 0;
}