Non-free 2D Features Algorithms ================================= This section describes two popular algorithms for 2d feature detection, SIFT and SURF, that are known to be patented. Use them at your own risk. SIFT ---- .. ocv:class:: SIFT : public Feature2D Class for extracting keypoints and computing descriptors using the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm by D. Lowe [Lowe04]_. .. [Lowe04] Lowe, D. G., “Distinctive Image Features from Scale-Invariant Keypoints”, International Journal of Computer Vision, 60, 2, pp. 91-110, 2004. SIFT::SIFT ---------- The SIFT constructors. .. ocv:function:: SIFT::SIFT( int nfeatures=0, int nOctaveLayers=3, double contrastThreshold=0.04, double edgeThreshold=10, double sigma=1.6) .. ocv:pyfunction:: cv2.SIFT([, nfeatures[, nOctaveLayers[, contrastThreshold[, edgeThreshold[, sigma]]]]]) -> :param nfeatures: The number of best features to retain. The features are ranked by their scores (measured in SIFT algorithm as the local contrast) :param nOctaveLayers: The number of layers in each octave. 3 is the value used in D. Lowe paper. The number of octaves is computed automatically from the image resolution. :param contrastThreshold: The contrast threshold used to filter out weak features in semi-uniform (low-contrast) regions. The larger the threshold, the less features are produced by the detector. :param edgeThreshold: The threshold used to filter out edge-like features. Note that the its meaning is different from the contrastThreshold, i.e. the larger the edgeThreshold, the less features are filtered out (more features are retained). :param sigma: The sigma of the Gaussian applied to the input image at the octave #0. If your image is captured with a weak camera with soft lenses, you might want to reduce the number. SIFT::operator () ----------------- Extract features and computes their descriptors using SIFT algorithm .. ocv:function:: void SIFT::operator()(InputArray img, InputArray mask, vector& keypoints, OutputArray descriptors, bool useProvidedKeypoints=false) .. ocv:pyfunction:: cv2.SIFT.detect(image[, mask]) -> keypoints .. ocv:pyfunction:: cv2.SIFT.compute(image, keypoints[, descriptors]) -> keypoints, descriptors .. ocv:pyfunction:: cv2.SIFT.detectAndCompute(image, mask[, descriptors[, useProvidedKeypoints]]) -> keypoints, descriptors :param img: Input 8-bit grayscale image :param mask: Optional input mask that marks the regions where we should detect features. :param keypoints: The input/output vector of keypoints :param descriptors: The output matrix of descriptors. Pass cv::noArray() if you do not need them. :param useProvidedKeypoints: Boolean flag. If it is true, the keypoint detector is not run. Instead, the provided vector of keypoints is used and the algorithm just computes their descriptors. .. note:: Python API provides three functions. First one finds keypoints only. Second function computes the descriptors based on the keypoints we provide. Third function detects the keypoints and computes their descriptors. If you want both keypoints and descriptors, directly use third function as kp, des = cv2.SIFT.detectAndCompute(image, None) SURF ---- .. ocv:class:: SURF : public Feature2D Class for extracting Speeded Up Robust Features from an image [Bay06]_. The class is derived from CvSURFParams structure, which specifies the algorithm parameters: .. ocv:member:: int extended * 0 means that the basic descriptors (64 elements each) shall be computed * 1 means that the extended descriptors (128 elements each) shall be computed .. ocv:member:: int upright * 0 means that detector computes orientation of each feature. * 1 means that the orientation is not computed (which is much, much faster). For example, if you match images from a stereo pair, or do image stitching, the matched features likely have very similar angles, and you can speed up feature extraction by setting upright=1. .. ocv:member:: double hessianThreshold Threshold for the keypoint detector. Only features, whose hessian is larger than hessianThreshold are retained by the detector. Therefore, the larger the value, the less keypoints you will get. A good default value could be from 300 to 500, depending from the image contrast. .. ocv:member:: int nOctaves The number of a gaussian pyramid octaves that the detector uses. It is set to 4 by default. If you want to get very large features, use the larger value. If you want just small features, decrease it. .. ocv:member:: int nOctaveLayers The number of images within each octave of a gaussian pyramid. It is set to 2 by default. .. [Bay06] Bay, H. and Tuytelaars, T. and Van Gool, L. "SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features", 9th European Conference on Computer Vision, 2006 .. note:: * An example using the SURF feature detector can be found at opencv_source_code/samples/cpp/generic_descriptor_match.cpp * Another example using the SURF feature detector, extractor and matcher can be found at opencv_source_code/samples/cpp/matcher_simple.cpp SURF::SURF ---------- The SURF extractor constructors. .. ocv:function:: SURF::SURF() .. ocv:function:: SURF::SURF( double hessianThreshold, int nOctaves=4, int nOctaveLayers=2, bool extended=true, bool upright=false ) .. ocv:pyfunction:: cv2.SURF([hessianThreshold[, nOctaves[, nOctaveLayers[, extended[, upright]]]]]) -> :param hessianThreshold: Threshold for hessian keypoint detector used in SURF. :param nOctaves: Number of pyramid octaves the keypoint detector will use. :param nOctaveLayers: Number of octave layers within each octave. :param extended: Extended descriptor flag (true - use extended 128-element descriptors; false - use 64-element descriptors). :param upright: Up-right or rotated features flag (true - do not compute orientation of features; false - compute orientation). SURF::operator() ---------------- Detects keypoints and computes SURF descriptors for them. .. ocv:function:: void SURF::operator()(InputArray img, InputArray mask, vector& keypoints) const .. ocv:function:: void SURF::operator()(InputArray img, InputArray mask, vector& keypoints, OutputArray descriptors, bool useProvidedKeypoints=false) .. ocv:pyfunction:: cv2.SURF.detect(image[, mask]) -> keypoints .. ocv:pyfunction:: cv2.SURF.compute(image, keypoints[, descriptors]) -> keypoints, descriptors .. ocv:pyfunction:: cv2.SURF.detectAndCompute(image, mask[, descriptors[, useProvidedKeypoints]]) -> keypoints, descriptors .. ocv:pyfunction:: cv2.SURF.detectAndCompute(image[, mask]) -> keypoints, descriptors .. ocv:cfunction:: void cvExtractSURF( const CvArr* image, const CvArr* mask, CvSeq** keypoints, CvSeq** descriptors, CvMemStorage* storage, CvSURFParams params ) :param image: Input 8-bit grayscale image :param mask: Optional input mask that marks the regions where we should detect features. :param keypoints: The input/output vector of keypoints :param descriptors: The output matrix of descriptors. Pass cv::noArray() if you do not need them. :param useProvidedKeypoints: Boolean flag. If it is true, the keypoint detector is not run. Instead, the provided vector of keypoints is used and the algorithm just computes their descriptors. :param storage: Memory storage for the output keypoints and descriptors in OpenCV 1.x API. :param params: SURF algorithm parameters in OpenCV 1.x API. The function is parallelized with the TBB library. If you are using the C version, make sure you call cv::initModule_xfeatures2d() from xfeatures2d/nonfree.hpp. cuda::SURF_CUDA --------------- .. ocv:class:: cuda::SURF_CUDA Class used for extracting Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) from an image. :: class SURF_CUDA { public: enum KeypointLayout { X_ROW = 0, Y_ROW, LAPLACIAN_ROW, OCTAVE_ROW, SIZE_ROW, ANGLE_ROW, HESSIAN_ROW, ROWS_COUNT }; //! the default constructor SURF_CUDA(); //! the full constructor taking all the necessary parameters explicit SURF_CUDA(double _hessianThreshold, int _nOctaves=4, int _nOctaveLayers=2, bool _extended=false, float _keypointsRatio=0.01f); //! returns the descriptor size in float's (64 or 128) int descriptorSize() const; //! upload host keypoints to device memory void uploadKeypoints(const vector& keypoints, GpuMat& keypointsGPU); //! download keypoints from device to host memory void downloadKeypoints(const GpuMat& keypointsGPU, vector& keypoints); //! download descriptors from device to host memory void downloadDescriptors(const GpuMat& descriptorsGPU, vector& descriptors); void operator()(const GpuMat& img, const GpuMat& mask, GpuMat& keypoints); void operator()(const GpuMat& img, const GpuMat& mask, GpuMat& keypoints, GpuMat& descriptors, bool useProvidedKeypoints = false, bool calcOrientation = true); void operator()(const GpuMat& img, const GpuMat& mask, std::vector& keypoints); void operator()(const GpuMat& img, const GpuMat& mask, std::vector& keypoints, GpuMat& descriptors, bool useProvidedKeypoints = false, bool calcOrientation = true); void operator()(const GpuMat& img, const GpuMat& mask, std::vector& keypoints, std::vector& descriptors, bool useProvidedKeypoints = false, bool calcOrientation = true); void releaseMemory(); // SURF parameters double hessianThreshold; int nOctaves; int nOctaveLayers; bool extended; bool upright; //! max keypoints = keypointsRatio * img.size().area() float keypointsRatio; GpuMat sum, mask1, maskSum, intBuffer; GpuMat det, trace; GpuMat maxPosBuffer; }; The class SURF_CUDA implements Speeded Up Robust Features descriptor. There is a fast multi-scale Hessian keypoint detector that can be used to find the keypoints (which is the default option). But the descriptors can also be computed for the user-specified keypoints. Only 8-bit grayscale images are supported. The class SURF_CUDA can store results in the GPU and CPU memory. It provides functions to convert results between CPU and GPU version ( uploadKeypoints, downloadKeypoints, downloadDescriptors ). The format of CPU results is the same as SURF results. GPU results are stored in GpuMat. The keypoints matrix is :math:\texttt{nFeatures} \times 7 matrix with the CV_32FC1 type. * keypoints.ptr(X_ROW)[i] contains x coordinate of the i-th feature. * keypoints.ptr(Y_ROW)[i] contains y coordinate of the i-th feature. * keypoints.ptr(LAPLACIAN_ROW)[i] contains the laplacian sign of the i-th feature. * keypoints.ptr(OCTAVE_ROW)[i] contains the octave of the i-th feature. * keypoints.ptr(SIZE_ROW)[i] contains the size of the i-th feature. * keypoints.ptr(ANGLE_ROW)[i] contain orientation of the i-th feature. * keypoints.ptr(HESSIAN_ROW)[i] contains the response of the i-th feature. The descriptors matrix is :math:\texttt{nFeatures} \times \texttt{descriptorSize} matrix with the CV_32FC1 type. The class SURF_CUDA uses some buffers and provides access to it. All buffers can be safely released between function calls. .. seealso:: :ocv:class:SURF .. note:: * An example for using the SURF keypoint matcher on GPU can be found at opencv_source_code/samples/gpu/surf_keypoint_matcher.cpp