Saving and Loading a FaceRecognizer

Introduction

Saving and loading a FaceRecognizer is very important. Training a FaceRecognizer can be a very time-intense task, plus it’s often impossible to ship the whole face database to the user of your product. The task of saving and loading a FaceRecognizer is easy with FaceRecognizer. You only have to call FaceRecognizer::load() for loading and FaceRecognizer::save() for saving a FaceRecognizer.

I’ll adapt the Eigenfaces example from the Face Recognition with OpenCV: Imagine we want to learn the Eigenfaces of the AT&T Facedatabase, store the model to a YAML file and then load it again.

From the loaded model, we’ll get a prediction, show the mean, Eigenfaces and the image reconstruction.

Using FaceRecognizer::save and FaceRecognizer::load

The source code for this demo application is also available in the src folder coming with this documentation:

  1
  2
  3
  4
  5
  6
  7
  8
  9
 10
 11
 12
 13
 14
 15
 16
 17
 18
 19
 20
 21
 22
 23
 24
 25
 26
 27
 28
 29
 30
 31
 32
 33
 34
 35
 36
 37
 38
 39
 40
 41
 42
 43
 44
 45
 46
 47
 48
 49
 50
 51
 52
 53
 54
 55
 56
 57
 58
 59
 60
 61
 62
 63
 64
 65
 66
 67
 68
 69
 70
 71
 72
 73
 74
 75
 76
 77
 78
 79
 80
 81
 82
 83
 84
 85
 86
 87
 88
 89
 90
 91
 92
 93
 94
 95
 96
 97
 98
 99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
/*
 * Copyright (c) 2011. Philipp Wagner <bytefish[at]gmx[dot]de>.
 * Released to public domain under terms of the BSD Simplified license.
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
 *   * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
 *     notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 *   * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
 *     notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
 *     documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
 *   * Neither the name of the organization nor the names of its contributors
 *     may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
 *     without specific prior written permission.
 *
 *   See <http://www.opensource.org/licenses/bsd-license>
 */

#include "opencv2/contrib/contrib.hpp"
#include "opencv2/core/core.hpp"
#include "opencv2/highgui/highgui.hpp"

#include <iostream>
#include <fstream>
#include <sstream>

using namespace cv;
using namespace std;

static Mat norm_0_255(InputArray _src) {
    Mat src = _src.getMat();
    // Create and return normalized image:
    Mat dst;
    switch(src.channels()) {
    case 1:
        cv::normalize(_src, dst, 0, 255, NORM_MINMAX, CV_8UC1);
        break;
    case 3:
        cv::normalize(_src, dst, 0, 255, NORM_MINMAX, CV_8UC3);
        break;
    default:
        src.copyTo(dst);
        break;
    }
    return dst;
}

static void read_csv(const string& filename, vector<Mat>& images, vector<int>& labels, char separator = ';') {
    std::ifstream file(filename.c_str(), ifstream::in);
    if (!file) {
        string error_message = "No valid input file was given, please check the given filename.";
        CV_Error(CV_StsBadArg, error_message);
    }
    string line, path, classlabel;
    while (getline(file, line)) {
        stringstream liness(line);
        getline(liness, path, separator);
        getline(liness, classlabel);
        if(!path.empty() && !classlabel.empty()) {
            images.push_back(imread(path, 0));
            labels.push_back(atoi(classlabel.c_str()));
        }
    }
}

int main(int argc, const char *argv[]) {
    // Check for valid command line arguments, print usage
    // if no arguments were given.
    if (argc < 2) {
        cout << "usage: " << argv[0] << " <csv.ext> <output_folder> " << endl;
        exit(1);
    }
    string output_folder = ".";
    if (argc == 3) {
        output_folder = string(argv[2]);
    }
    // Get the path to your CSV.
    string fn_csv = string(argv[1]);
    // These vectors hold the images and corresponding labels.
    vector<Mat> images;
    vector<int> labels;
    // Read in the data. This can fail if no valid
    // input filename is given.
    try {
        read_csv(fn_csv, images, labels);
    } catch (cv::Exception& e) {
        cerr << "Error opening file \"" << fn_csv << "\". Reason: " << e.msg << endl;
        // nothing more we can do
        exit(1);
    }
    // Quit if there are not enough images for this demo.
    if(images.size() <= 1) {
        string error_message = "This demo needs at least 2 images to work. Please add more images to your data set!";
        CV_Error(CV_StsError, error_message);
    }
    // Get the height from the first image. We'll need this
    // later in code to reshape the images to their original
    // size:
    int height = images[0].rows;
    // The following lines simply get the last images from
    // your dataset and remove it from the vector. This is
    // done, so that the training data (which we learn the
    // cv::FaceRecognizer on) and the test data we test
    // the model with, do not overlap.
    Mat testSample = images[images.size() - 1];
    int testLabel = labels[labels.size() - 1];
    images.pop_back();
    labels.pop_back();
    // The following lines create an Eigenfaces model for
    // face recognition and train it with the images and
    // labels read from the given CSV file.
    // This here is a full PCA, if you just want to keep
    // 10 principal components (read Eigenfaces), then call
    // the factory method like this:
    //
    //      cv::createEigenFaceRecognizer(10);
    //
    // If you want to create a FaceRecognizer with a
    // confidence threshold (e.g. 123.0), call it with:
    //
    //      cv::createEigenFaceRecognizer(10, 123.0);
    //
    // If you want to use _all_ Eigenfaces and have a threshold,
    // then call the method like this:
    //
    //      cv::createEigenFaceRecognizer(0, 123.0);
    //
    Ptr<FaceRecognizer> model0 = createEigenFaceRecognizer();
    model0->train(images, labels);
    // save the model to eigenfaces_at.yaml
    model0->save("eigenfaces_at.yml");
    //
    //
    // Now create a new Eigenfaces Recognizer
    //
    Ptr<FaceRecognizer> model1 = createEigenFaceRecognizer();
    model1->load("eigenfaces_at.yml");
    // The following line predicts the label of a given
    // test image:
    int predictedLabel = model1->predict(testSample);
    //
    // To get the confidence of a prediction call the model with:
    //
    //      int predictedLabel = -1;
    //      double confidence = 0.0;
    //      model->predict(testSample, predictedLabel, confidence);
    //
    string result_message = format("Predicted class = %d / Actual class = %d.", predictedLabel, testLabel);
    cout << result_message << endl;
    // Here is how to get the eigenvalues of this Eigenfaces model:
    Mat eigenvalues = model1->getMat("eigenvalues");
    // And we can do the same to display the Eigenvectors (read Eigenfaces):
    Mat W = model1->getMat("eigenvectors");
    // Get the sample mean from the training data
    Mat mean = model1->getMat("mean");
    // Display or save:
    if(argc == 2) {
        imshow("mean", norm_0_255(mean.reshape(1, images[0].rows)));
    } else {
        imwrite(format("%s/mean.png", output_folder.c_str()), norm_0_255(mean.reshape(1, images[0].rows)));
    }
    // Display or save the Eigenfaces:
    for (int i = 0; i < min(10, W.cols); i++) {
        string msg = format("Eigenvalue #%d = %.5f", i, eigenvalues.at<double>(i));
        cout << msg << endl;
        // get eigenvector #i
        Mat ev = W.col(i).clone();
        // Reshape to original size & normalize to [0...255] for imshow.
        Mat grayscale = norm_0_255(ev.reshape(1, height));
        // Show the image & apply a Jet colormap for better sensing.
        Mat cgrayscale;
        applyColorMap(grayscale, cgrayscale, COLORMAP_JET);
        // Display or save:
        if(argc == 2) {
            imshow(format("eigenface_%d", i), cgrayscale);
        } else {
            imwrite(format("%s/eigenface_%d.png", output_folder.c_str(), i), norm_0_255(cgrayscale));
        }
    }
    // Display or save the image reconstruction at some predefined steps:
    for(int num_components = 10; num_components < 300; num_components+=15) {
        // slice the eigenvectors from the model
        Mat evs = Mat(W, Range::all(), Range(0, num_components));
        Mat projection = subspaceProject(evs, mean, images[0].reshape(1,1));
        Mat reconstruction = subspaceReconstruct(evs, mean, projection);
        // Normalize the result:
        reconstruction = norm_0_255(reconstruction.reshape(1, images[0].rows));
        // Display or save:
        if(argc == 2) {
            imshow(format("eigenface_reconstruction_%d", num_components), reconstruction);
        } else {
            imwrite(format("%s/eigenface_reconstruction_%d.png", output_folder.c_str(), num_components), reconstruction);
        }
    }
    // Display if we are not writing to an output folder:
    if(argc == 2) {
        waitKey(0);
    }
    return 0;
}

Results

eigenfaces_at.yml then contains the model state, we’ll simply look at the first 10 lines with head eigenfaces_at.yml:

[email protected]:~/github/libfacerec-build$ head eigenfaces_at.yml
%YAML:1.0
num_components: 399
mean: !!opencv-matrix
   rows: 1
   cols: 10304
   dt: d
   data: [ 8.5558897243107765e+01, 8.5511278195488714e+01,
       8.5854636591478695e+01, 8.5796992481203006e+01,
       8.5952380952380949e+01, 8.6162907268170414e+01,
       8.6082706766917283e+01, 8.5776942355889716e+01,

And here is the Reconstruction, which is the same as the original:

../../../../../_images/eigenface_reconstruction_opencv1.png