The algorithm caches all training samples and predicts the response for a new sample by analyzing a certain number (K) of the nearest neighbors of the sample using voting, calculating weighted sum, and so on. The method is sometimes referred to as “learning by example” because for prediction it looks for the feature vector with a known response that is closest to the given vector.
The class implements KNearest Neighbors model as described in the beginning of this section.
Note
Default and training constructors.
See CvKNearest::train() for additional parameters descriptions.
Trains the model.
Parameters: 


The method trains the KNearest model. It follows the conventions of the generic CvStatModel::train() approach with the following limitations:
Finds the neighbors and predicts responses for input vectors.
Parameters: 


For each input vector (a row of the matrix samples), the method finds the k nearest neighbors. In case of regression, the predicted result is a mean value of the particular vector’s neighbor responses. In case of classification, the class is determined by voting.
For each input vector, the neighbors are sorted by their distances to the vector.
In case of C++ interface you can use output pointers to empty matrices and the function will allocate memory itself.
If only a single input vector is passed, all output matrices are optional and the predicted value is returned by the method.
The function is parallelized with the TBB library.
Returns the number of maximum neighbors that may be passed to the method CvKNearest::find_nearest().
Returns the number of used features (variables count).
Returns the total number of train samples.
Returns type of the problem: true for regression and false for classification.
The sample below (currently using the obsolete CvMat structures) demonstrates the use of the knearest classifier for 2D point classification:
#include "ml.h"
#include "highgui.h"
int main( int argc, char** argv )
{
const int K = 10;
int i, j, k, accuracy;
float response;
int train_sample_count = 100;
CvRNG rng_state = cvRNG(1);
CvMat* trainData = cvCreateMat( train_sample_count, 2, CV_32FC1 );
CvMat* trainClasses = cvCreateMat( train_sample_count, 1, CV_32FC1 );
IplImage* img = cvCreateImage( cvSize( 500, 500 ), 8, 3 );
float _sample[2];
CvMat sample = cvMat( 1, 2, CV_32FC1, _sample );
cvZero( img );
CvMat trainData1, trainData2, trainClasses1, trainClasses2;
// form the training samples
cvGetRows( trainData, &trainData1, 0, train_sample_count/2 );
cvRandArr( &rng_state, &trainData1, CV_RAND_NORMAL, cvScalar(200,200), cvScalar(50,50) );
cvGetRows( trainData, &trainData2, train_sample_count/2, train_sample_count );
cvRandArr( &rng_state, &trainData2, CV_RAND_NORMAL, cvScalar(300,300), cvScalar(50,50) );
cvGetRows( trainClasses, &trainClasses1, 0, train_sample_count/2 );
cvSet( &trainClasses1, cvScalar(1) );
cvGetRows( trainClasses, &trainClasses2, train_sample_count/2, train_sample_count );
cvSet( &trainClasses2, cvScalar(2) );
// learn classifier
CvKNearest knn( trainData, trainClasses, 0, false, K );
CvMat* nearests = cvCreateMat( 1, K, CV_32FC1);
for( i = 0; i < img>height; i++ )
{
for( j = 0; j < img>width; j++ )
{
sample.data.fl[0] = (float)j;
sample.data.fl[1] = (float)i;
// estimate the response and get the neighbors' labels
response = knn.find_nearest(&sample,K,0,0,nearests,0);
// compute the number of neighbors representing the majority
for( k = 0, accuracy = 0; k < K; k++ )
{
if( nearests>data.fl[k] == response)
accuracy++;
}
// highlight the pixel depending on the accuracy (or confidence)
cvSet2D( img, i, j, response == 1 ?
(accuracy > 5 ? CV_RGB(180,0,0) : CV_RGB(180,120,0)) :
(accuracy > 5 ? CV_RGB(0,180,0) : CV_RGB(120,120,0)) );
}
}
// display the original training samples
for( i = 0; i < train_sample_count/2; i++ )
{
CvPoint pt;
pt.x = cvRound(trainData1.data.fl[i*2]);
pt.y = cvRound(trainData1.data.fl[i*2+1]);
cvCircle( img, pt, 2, CV_RGB(255,0,0), CV_FILLED );
pt.x = cvRound(trainData2.data.fl[i*2]);
pt.y = cvRound(trainData2.data.fl[i*2+1]);
cvCircle( img, pt, 2, CV_RGB(0,255,0), CV_FILLED );
}
cvNamedWindow( "classifier result", 1 );
cvShowImage( "classifier result", img );
cvWaitKey(0);
cvReleaseMat( &trainClasses );
cvReleaseMat( &trainData );
return 0;
}