OpenCV  3.3.0-rc
Open Source Computer Vision
Modules | Enumerations | Functions
Image file reading and writing

Modules

 C API
 
 iOS glue
 

Enumerations

enum  cv::ImreadModes {
  cv::IMREAD_UNCHANGED = -1,
  cv::IMREAD_GRAYSCALE = 0,
  cv::IMREAD_COLOR = 1,
  cv::IMREAD_ANYDEPTH = 2,
  cv::IMREAD_ANYCOLOR = 4,
  cv::IMREAD_LOAD_GDAL = 8,
  cv::IMREAD_REDUCED_GRAYSCALE_2 = 16,
  cv::IMREAD_REDUCED_COLOR_2 = 17,
  cv::IMREAD_REDUCED_GRAYSCALE_4 = 32,
  cv::IMREAD_REDUCED_COLOR_4 = 33,
  cv::IMREAD_REDUCED_GRAYSCALE_8 = 64,
  cv::IMREAD_REDUCED_COLOR_8 = 65,
  cv::IMREAD_IGNORE_ORIENTATION = 128
}
 Imread flags. More...
 
enum  cv::ImwriteFlags {
  cv::IMWRITE_JPEG_QUALITY = 1,
  cv::IMWRITE_JPEG_PROGRESSIVE = 2,
  cv::IMWRITE_JPEG_OPTIMIZE = 3,
  cv::IMWRITE_JPEG_RST_INTERVAL = 4,
  cv::IMWRITE_JPEG_LUMA_QUALITY = 5,
  cv::IMWRITE_JPEG_CHROMA_QUALITY = 6,
  cv::IMWRITE_PNG_COMPRESSION = 16,
  cv::IMWRITE_PNG_STRATEGY = 17,
  cv::IMWRITE_PNG_BILEVEL = 18,
  cv::IMWRITE_PXM_BINARY = 32,
  cv::IMWRITE_WEBP_QUALITY = 64,
  cv::IMWRITE_PAM_TUPLETYPE = 128
}
 Imwrite flags. More...
 
enum  cv::ImwritePAMFlags {
  cv::IMWRITE_PAM_FORMAT_NULL = 0,
  cv::IMWRITE_PAM_FORMAT_BLACKANDWHITE = 1,
  cv::IMWRITE_PAM_FORMAT_GRAYSCALE = 2,
  cv::IMWRITE_PAM_FORMAT_GRAYSCALE_ALPHA = 3,
  cv::IMWRITE_PAM_FORMAT_RGB = 4,
  cv::IMWRITE_PAM_FORMAT_RGB_ALPHA = 5
}
 Imwrite PAM specific tupletype flags used to define the 'TUPETYPE' field of a PAM file. More...
 
enum  cv::ImwritePNGFlags {
  cv::IMWRITE_PNG_STRATEGY_DEFAULT = 0,
  cv::IMWRITE_PNG_STRATEGY_FILTERED = 1,
  cv::IMWRITE_PNG_STRATEGY_HUFFMAN_ONLY = 2,
  cv::IMWRITE_PNG_STRATEGY_RLE = 3,
  cv::IMWRITE_PNG_STRATEGY_FIXED = 4
}
 Imwrite PNG specific flags used to tune the compression algorithm. More...
 

Functions

Mat cv::imdecode (InputArray buf, int flags)
 Reads an image from a buffer in memory. More...
 
Mat cv::imdecode (InputArray buf, int flags, Mat *dst)
 
bool cv::imencode (const String &ext, InputArray img, std::vector< uchar > &buf, const std::vector< int > &params=std::vector< int >())
 Encodes an image into a memory buffer. More...
 
Mat cv::imread (const String &filename, int flags=IMREAD_COLOR)
 Loads an image from a file. More...
 
bool cv::imreadmulti (const String &filename, std::vector< Mat > &mats, int flags=IMREAD_ANYCOLOR)
 Loads a multi-page image from a file. More...
 
bool cv::imwrite (const String &filename, InputArray img, const std::vector< int > &params=std::vector< int >())
 Saves an image to a specified file. More...
 

Detailed Description

Enumeration Type Documentation

§ ImreadModes

Imread flags.

Enumerator
IMREAD_UNCHANGED 

If set, return the loaded image as is (with alpha channel, otherwise it gets cropped).

IMREAD_GRAYSCALE 

If set, always convert image to the single channel grayscale image.

IMREAD_COLOR 

If set, always convert image to the 3 channel BGR color image.

IMREAD_ANYDEPTH 

If set, return 16-bit/32-bit image when the input has the corresponding depth, otherwise convert it to 8-bit.

IMREAD_ANYCOLOR 

If set, the image is read in any possible color format.

IMREAD_LOAD_GDAL 

If set, use the gdal driver for loading the image.

IMREAD_REDUCED_GRAYSCALE_2 

If set, always convert image to the single channel grayscale image and the image size reduced 1/2.

IMREAD_REDUCED_COLOR_2 

If set, always convert image to the 3 channel BGR color image and the image size reduced 1/2.

IMREAD_REDUCED_GRAYSCALE_4 

If set, always convert image to the single channel grayscale image and the image size reduced 1/4.

IMREAD_REDUCED_COLOR_4 

If set, always convert image to the 3 channel BGR color image and the image size reduced 1/4.

IMREAD_REDUCED_GRAYSCALE_8 

If set, always convert image to the single channel grayscale image and the image size reduced 1/8.

IMREAD_REDUCED_COLOR_8 

If set, always convert image to the 3 channel BGR color image and the image size reduced 1/8.

IMREAD_IGNORE_ORIENTATION 

If set, do not rotate the image according to EXIF's orientation flag.

§ ImwriteFlags

Imwrite flags.

Enumerator
IMWRITE_JPEG_QUALITY 

For JPEG, it can be a quality from 0 to 100 (the higher is the better). Default value is 95.

IMWRITE_JPEG_PROGRESSIVE 

Enable JPEG features, 0 or 1, default is False.

IMWRITE_JPEG_OPTIMIZE 

Enable JPEG features, 0 or 1, default is False.

IMWRITE_JPEG_RST_INTERVAL 

JPEG restart interval, 0 - 65535, default is 0 - no restart.

IMWRITE_JPEG_LUMA_QUALITY 

Separate luma quality level, 0 - 100, default is 0 - don't use.

IMWRITE_JPEG_CHROMA_QUALITY 

Separate chroma quality level, 0 - 100, default is 0 - don't use.

IMWRITE_PNG_COMPRESSION 

For PNG, it can be the compression level from 0 to 9. A higher value means a smaller size and longer compression time. If specified, strategy is changed to IMWRITE_PNG_STRATEGY_DEFAULT (Z_DEFAULT_STRATEGY). Default value is 1 (best speed setting).

IMWRITE_PNG_STRATEGY 

One of cv::ImwritePNGFlags, default is IMWRITE_PNG_STRATEGY_RLE.

IMWRITE_PNG_BILEVEL 

Binary level PNG, 0 or 1, default is 0.

IMWRITE_PXM_BINARY 

For PPM, PGM, or PBM, it can be a binary format flag, 0 or 1. Default value is 1.

IMWRITE_WEBP_QUALITY 

For WEBP, it can be a quality from 1 to 100 (the higher is the better). By default (without any parameter) and for quality above 100 the lossless compression is used.

IMWRITE_PAM_TUPLETYPE 

For PAM, sets the TUPLETYPE field to the corresponding string value that is defined for the format.

§ ImwritePAMFlags

Imwrite PAM specific tupletype flags used to define the 'TUPETYPE' field of a PAM file.

Enumerator
IMWRITE_PAM_FORMAT_NULL 
IMWRITE_PAM_FORMAT_BLACKANDWHITE 
IMWRITE_PAM_FORMAT_GRAYSCALE 
IMWRITE_PAM_FORMAT_GRAYSCALE_ALPHA 
IMWRITE_PAM_FORMAT_RGB 
IMWRITE_PAM_FORMAT_RGB_ALPHA 

§ ImwritePNGFlags

Imwrite PNG specific flags used to tune the compression algorithm.

These flags will be modify the way of PNG image compression and will be passed to the underlying zlib processing stage.

  • The effect of IMWRITE_PNG_STRATEGY_FILTERED is to force more Huffman coding and less string matching; it is somewhat intermediate between IMWRITE_PNG_STRATEGY_DEFAULT and IMWRITE_PNG_STRATEGY_HUFFMAN_ONLY.
  • IMWRITE_PNG_STRATEGY_RLE is designed to be almost as fast as IMWRITE_PNG_STRATEGY_HUFFMAN_ONLY, but give better compression for PNG image data.
  • The strategy parameter only affects the compression ratio but not the correctness of the compressed output even if it is not set appropriately.
  • IMWRITE_PNG_STRATEGY_FIXED prevents the use of dynamic Huffman codes, allowing for a simpler decoder for special applications.
Enumerator
IMWRITE_PNG_STRATEGY_DEFAULT 

Use this value for normal data.

IMWRITE_PNG_STRATEGY_FILTERED 

Use this value for data produced by a filter (or predictor).Filtered data consists mostly of small values with a somewhat random distribution. In this case, the compression algorithm is tuned to compress them better.

IMWRITE_PNG_STRATEGY_HUFFMAN_ONLY 

Use this value to force Huffman encoding only (no string match).

IMWRITE_PNG_STRATEGY_RLE 

Use this value to limit match distances to one (run-length encoding).

IMWRITE_PNG_STRATEGY_FIXED 

Using this value prevents the use of dynamic Huffman codes, allowing for a simpler decoder for special applications.

Function Documentation

§ imdecode() [1/2]

Mat cv::imdecode ( InputArray  buf,
int  flags 
)

Reads an image from a buffer in memory.

The function imdecode reads an image from the specified buffer in the memory. If the buffer is too short or contains invalid data, the function returns an empty matrix ( Mat::data==NULL ).

See cv::imread for the list of supported formats and flags description.

Note
In the case of color images, the decoded images will have the channels stored in B G R order.
Parameters
bufInput array or vector of bytes.
flagsThe same flags as in cv::imread, see cv::ImreadModes.

§ imdecode() [2/2]

Mat cv::imdecode ( InputArray  buf,
int  flags,
Mat dst 
)

This is an overloaded member function, provided for convenience. It differs from the above function only in what argument(s) it accepts.

Parameters
buf
flags
dstThe optional output placeholder for the decoded matrix. It can save the image reallocations when the function is called repeatedly for images of the same size.

§ imencode()

bool cv::imencode ( const String ext,
InputArray  img,
std::vector< uchar > &  buf,
const std::vector< int > &  params = std::vector< int >() 
)

Encodes an image into a memory buffer.

The function imencode compresses the image and stores it in the memory buffer that is resized to fit the result. See cv::imwrite for the list of supported formats and flags description.

Parameters
extFile extension that defines the output format.
imgImage to be written.
bufOutput buffer resized to fit the compressed image.
paramsFormat-specific parameters. See cv::imwrite and cv::ImwriteFlags.

§ imread()

Mat cv::imread ( const String filename,
int  flags = IMREAD_COLOR 
)

Loads an image from a file.

The function imread loads an image from the specified file and returns it. If the image cannot be read (because of missing file, improper permissions, unsupported or invalid format), the function returns an empty matrix ( Mat::data==NULL ).

Currently, the following file formats are supported:

  • Windows bitmaps - *.bmp, *.dib (always supported)
  • JPEG files - *.jpeg, *.jpg, *.jpe (see the Notes section)
  • JPEG 2000 files - *.jp2 (see the Notes section)
  • Portable Network Graphics - *.png (see the Notes section)
  • WebP - *.webp (see the Notes section)
  • Portable image format - *.pbm, *.pgm, *.ppm *.pxm, *.pnm (always supported)
  • Sun rasters - *.sr, *.ras (always supported)
  • TIFF files - *.tiff, *.tif (see the Notes section)
  • OpenEXR Image files - *.exr (see the Notes section)
  • Radiance HDR - *.hdr, *.pic (always supported)
  • Raster and Vector geospatial data supported by Gdal (see the Notes section)
Note
  • The function determines the type of an image by the content, not by the file extension.
  • In the case of color images, the decoded images will have the channels stored in B G R order.
  • On Microsoft Windows* OS and MacOSX*, the codecs shipped with an OpenCV image (libjpeg, libpng, libtiff, and libjasper) are used by default. So, OpenCV can always read JPEGs, PNGs, and TIFFs. On MacOSX, there is also an option to use native MacOSX image readers. But beware that currently these native image loaders give images with different pixel values because of the color management embedded into MacOSX.
  • On Linux*, BSD flavors and other Unix-like open-source operating systems, OpenCV looks for codecs supplied with an OS image. Install the relevant packages (do not forget the development files, for example, "libjpeg-dev", in Debian* and Ubuntu*) to get the codec support or turn on the OPENCV_BUILD_3RDPARTY_LIBS flag in CMake.
  • In the case you set WITH_GDAL flag to true in CMake and IMREAD_LOAD_GDAL to load the image, then GDAL driver will be used in order to decode the image by supporting the following formats: Raster, Vector.
  • If EXIF information are embedded in the image file, the EXIF orientation will be taken into account and thus the image will be rotated accordingly except if the flag IMREAD_IGNORE_ORIENTATION is passed.
    Parameters
    filenameName of file to be loaded.
    flagsFlag that can take values of cv::ImreadModes
Examples:
demhist.cpp, distrans.cpp, edge.cpp, ffilldemo.cpp, fitellipse.cpp, fld_lines.cpp, grabcut.cpp, houghcircles.cpp, houghlines.cpp, lsd_lines.cpp, morphology2.cpp, pca.cpp, and watershed.cpp.

§ imreadmulti()

bool cv::imreadmulti ( const String filename,
std::vector< Mat > &  mats,
int  flags = IMREAD_ANYCOLOR 
)

Loads a multi-page image from a file.

The function imreadmulti loads a multi-page image from the specified file into a vector of Mat objects.

Parameters
filenameName of file to be loaded.
flagsFlag that can take values of cv::ImreadModes, default with cv::IMREAD_ANYCOLOR.
matsA vector of Mat objects holding each page, if more than one.
See also
cv::imread

§ imwrite()

bool cv::imwrite ( const String filename,
InputArray  img,
const std::vector< int > &  params = std::vector< int >() 
)

Saves an image to a specified file.

The function imwrite saves the image to the specified file. The image format is chosen based on the filename extension (see cv::imread for the list of extensions). Only 8-bit (or 16-bit unsigned (CV_16U) in case of PNG, JPEG 2000, and TIFF) single-channel or 3-channel (with 'BGR' channel order) images can be saved using this function. If the format, depth or channel order is different, use Mat::convertTo , and cv::cvtColor to convert it before saving. Or, use the universal FileStorage I/O functions to save the image to XML or YAML format.

It is possible to store PNG images with an alpha channel using this function. To do this, create 8-bit (or 16-bit) 4-channel image BGRA, where the alpha channel goes last. Fully transparent pixels should have alpha set to 0, fully opaque pixels should have alpha set to 255/65535.

The sample below shows how to create such a BGRA image and store to PNG file. It also demonstrates how to set custom compression parameters :

#include <opencv2/opencv.hpp>
using namespace cv;
using namespace std;
void createAlphaMat(Mat &mat)
{
CV_Assert(mat.channels() == 4);
for (int i = 0; i < mat.rows; ++i) {
for (int j = 0; j < mat.cols; ++j) {
Vec4b& bgra = mat.at<Vec4b>(i, j);
bgra[0] = UCHAR_MAX; // Blue
bgra[1] = saturate_cast<uchar>((float (mat.cols - j)) / ((float)mat.cols) * UCHAR_MAX); // Green
bgra[2] = saturate_cast<uchar>((float (mat.rows - i)) / ((float)mat.rows) * UCHAR_MAX); // Red
bgra[3] = saturate_cast<uchar>(0.5 * (bgra[1] + bgra[2])); // Alpha
}
}
}
int main(int argv, char **argc)
{
// Create mat with alpha channel
Mat mat(480, 640, CV_8UC4);
createAlphaMat(mat);
vector<int> compression_params;
compression_params.push_back(IMWRITE_PNG_COMPRESSION);
compression_params.push_back(9);
try {
imwrite("alpha.png", mat, compression_params);
}
catch (cv::Exception& ex) {
fprintf(stderr, "Exception converting image to PNG format: %s\n", ex.what());
return 1;
}
fprintf(stdout, "Saved PNG file with alpha data.\n");
return 0;
}
Parameters
filenameName of the file.
imgImage to be saved.
paramsFormat-specific parameters encoded as pairs (paramId_1, paramValue_1, paramId_2, paramValue_2, ... .) see cv::ImwriteFlags